Browsing by Author "Miroshnyk, Nataliіa"
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ItemBioindication of megalopolis park ecosystems under aerotechnogenic loading(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2022-03-11) Miroshnyk, Nataliіa; Grabovska, Tetіana; Mazura, Marina; Teslenko, IgorThis study focuses on the influence of motor transport on various indicators of park ecosystems and Taraxacum officinale Web., as well as on their applicability to the bioindication of the urban environments in the largest megalopolis of Ukraine, namely, Kyiv. Our investigations were carried out in 14 park ecosystems exposed to different levels of aerotechnogenic loading: low pollution level in Pushcha-Vodytsya (park) and outskirts, average pollution level along seven roads with medium traffic and high pollution level along eight highways. Pollen indication, integration and statistical methods were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of the impact of air pollutants. The aim is to assess the impact of vehicle emissions on the state of park ecosystems in the metropolis using bioindication and GIS technologies. The effects of air pollution on green infrastructure at the level of cells, organisms, groups and ecosystems in time and space are revealed. Under the influence of aerotechnogenic pollution, there is a deterioration of trees, their drying, defoliation of crowns and deterioration of integral indicators of park ecosystems. Using QGIS (Free open source geographic information system, version 3.12.3 „București”, May 15, 2020), we have created maps for the spread of air pollutants. The highest levels of air pollution and damage to parks were concentrated in the central part of the city with dense buildings and near heavy traffic roads. The average daily maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of phytotoxicants exceeded 1.5 MACa.d. and depended on the terrain and directions of the prevailing winds. We registered degradation of the megalopolis ecological state by 19.3% for 7 years. ItemForest shelter belts in organic agricultural landscape: structure of biodiversity and their ecological role(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2021-03-13) Lavrov, Vitaliy; Miroshnyk, Nataliіa; Grabovska, Tatіana; Shupova, TatіanaThe aim of this article is to assess the structure of biodiversity of field protective forest shelter belts to determine the directions of increasing their reclamation and conservation potential in the organic agricultural landscape. Methods of comparative ecology (synecological approach, assessment of α-diversity), forestry, geobotany, orni thology and statistical analysis are used. Changes in species diversity of plants and birds in forest shelter belts around organic fields are characterized. It is established that plantations with developed undergrowth and understorey are transformed due to the loss of up to 43.5% of trees, liquefaction of the edificatory tier. Transformer species with a wide phytocenotic range predominate in the tree stands. The grass tier is dominated by ruderants (36.5%) and adventive species (24.5%). The share (60%) of species with a mixed life strategy indicates changes in moisture conditions and soil trophism. A 2.4% of shade-loving plants and the presence of 14.7% nitrophils indicate an imbalance in the structure of forest shelter belts. Depletion of species composition, ecological and trophic structure of bird groups testify to the decrease in the capacity of forest shelter belts and their statio diversity, reduction of protective, environment-creating functions and other ecosystem services. In the three-tiered dense forest shelter belts with developed undergrowth and understorey, 10–27 species of birds nest. In general, avifauna is represented by 2 ecological groups (93.1% dendrophiles, 6.9% sclerophiles), divided into 5 types of nesting strategy (with a predominance of hollow-nests 37.0–53.3%), and 5 types of feeding (with a predominance of entomophagous 70.4–90.0%). Twenty-nine species have been identified on nesting, 27 of which are subject to protection at the level of international agreements. There are no adventive species, the index of synanthropization of avifauna is high – 0.85–1.0. For organic technologies to increase the potential of biological protection of fields from entomological pests by attracting insectivorous birds is relevant.