Browsing by Author "Neyko, Ihor"
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ItemSeed orchards in Ukraine: past, present and prospects for the future(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2019-12-30) Hayda, Yuriy; Los, Svitlana; Yatsyk, Roman; Tereshchenko, Larisa; Shlonchak, Grygoriy; Mytrochenko, Valentyna; Neyko, Ihor; Samodai, Viacheslav; Smashnyuk, Ludmila; Klisz, Marcin; Mohytych, VasylThe seed orchards (SO) serve possibilities to collect seeds from the selected genotypes or to create artificial population throughout the controlled crossing of the target genotypes. Therefore, the seed material obtained from the clonal and seedling seed orchards offers unique opportunity to improve the genetic value of seeds. Thus, the seed orchards are considered as an important part of the forest seed base being the key object for both modern forestry and forestry research. This paper outlines the forest breeding activities associated with the seed production in the seed orchards in Ukraine over the last 70 years. During this period, the different aspects related to the establishment and management of the seed orchard were studied. In these processes, many failures had occurred, their causes and consequences were described. These main breeding activities were reported considering plain and mountain regions of Ukraine as well as specific aspects of the reproduction of the main forest tree species. As of 2019, the total area of the clonal seed orchards (CSO) reached 1040.3 ha, while seedling seed orchards (SSO) only 273.7 ha. The results of research on the growth, reproductive development, the morphology of the plus trees clones in the SO were generalized. The article on the current problems and challenges for Ukrainian forestry mainly related to forest tree breeding and there was also focus on forest seed industry. For the main forest trees species (Scots pine, English oak and other), targeted breeding programs should be developed. It is relevant to create the genetic bank of the forest seeds. ItemSeed productivity and variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones of Finnish origin in seed orchard in the central part of Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-03-31) Neyko, Ihor; Kolchanova, Olena; Monarkh, Veronika; Poznyakova, SvitlanaGlobal climate change has mainly impacted the forest ecosystems in Europe. Today, it is not fully understood how these changes will affect the reproductive process of trees on seed orchards. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the growth, condition and reproductive function of Scots pine clones of Finnish origin after moving them to the southern direction of natural distribution area. Variability and seed productivity of 25-year-old clones of Scots pine of Finnish origin in the clonal seed orchard under climatic conditions of the central part of Ukraine (Vinnitsa region) was investigated. Grafted seedlings of Scots pine of Finnish origin were moved southward at a distance of over 1,500 km. Climatic conditions of Vinnytsia region, where the clones were displaced, differed by an increase in the mean and maximum temperatures by 3.3–3.6ºC, as well as an increase in the mean temperatures during the cold period and a rise in the minimum by 2.1–2.3ºC. The climate in the seed orchard location was characterized by the most significant increase in the mean temperatures in April and May (5.3–5.8ºC), which greatly influenced the intensity of the formation of microstrobili and macrostrobili. The ratio of precipitation to the amount of temperatures decreased more than twice. Analysis of the grafted trees’ vitality of Finnish origin and seed progeny of the local population, estimation of their intensity (height, diameter), state (category of the state) and reproductive processes (intensity of formation of microstrobili and cones) was carried out on the clonal seed orchard. In conditions of climate change, most of the clones of Finnish origin were characterized by a higher intensity of flowering compared to the local population. Some clones of Finnish origin (E80 and E729) dominated the local population by the seed yield. According to a comprehensive analy sis of vitality, the intensity of growth and reproductive capacity, the best clones of Finnish origin were E80, E1883 and E2254. Low adaptive ability was noted in the clones E2312, K634 and K801. According to the research results, it was found that changes in climatic conditions did not significantly affect the vitality, development and condition of the clones. There was observed intensification of the formation of microstrobili and cones. Seed viability and quality of Scots pine of Finnish origin obtained on seed orchards located in the southern conditions requires further research. ItemState of in situ forest genetic resources of broadleaved tree species in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2021-06-08) Neyko, Ihor; Monarkh, Veronika; Poznyakova, Svitlana; Matusyak, MykhailoForest genetic resources (FGRs) are an important source of biodiversity conservation and forest restoration. Today, more than 600 genetic reserves (GRs) of more than 30 main forest tree species have been allocated in Ukraine. The main aim of the work is to reveal the features of the distribution, environmental condition and the trends of state of in situ gene sources of broadleaved tree species in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Based on the research results, it has been established that the share of FGR in situ is only 0.3–0.5% of the total forest area of the region. The predominant species of forest stands of the region are English oak (Quercus robur L.) – 37.7%, European beach (Fagus sylvatica L.) – 26.8% and Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) – 7.6%. The in situ locations of Black alder (Alnus incana L.), Sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), English oak and Common ash are character ized by the highest average annual temperature (8.1–8.2°С), the accumulated temperatures for the growing season (3111.9–3237.1°С). Stands with the European beech predominance are allocated in better moisture conditions by the precipitation-temperatures ratio (Selianinov Hydrothermal Index (HTI) – 1.769–1.802; climatic index by Vorobyov – 2.707–2.951). The in situ gene pool conservation units are defined by 12 soil types that are included in the 7 main groups according to the FAO international classification. The largest number of sites, 67 (56.8%), is concentrated on grey and dark-grey forest soils (Haplic Greyzems) (47%). According to the research results, GRs are not evenly distributed, they do not fully reflect the environmental diversity, and their area is negligible. We indicated the unsatisfactory condition of most genetic reserves. It was caused by reducing the share of main tree species, decrease in relative stocking density of stands and tree-breeding structure and deterioration of tree stands condition. This re quires the development and implementation of an integration strategy based on the established concept of developing a national ecological network on both national and pan-European levels. ItemThe current state and efficiency use of in situ and ex situ conservation units for seed harvesting in the central part of Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2019-07-25) Neyko, Ihor; Yurkiv, Zinoviy; Matusiak, Mykhailo; Kolchanova, OlenaSignificant increase of biological stability, timber volume, and economic value of forests is impossible without refinement and improvement of the organization, and implementation of forest seed production on a genetic and breeding basis. It is possible to solve this task by creating and efficiently functioning in situ and ex situ facilities. In Ukraine, the basic principles of plus selection are envisaged, which include the selection and testing progeny of plus trees. The total number of progeny tests in Ukraine is 106 plots, in which 1,079 genotypes of plus trees are presented. Taking into account the total number of plus trees in Ukraine (4,560), only 23.7% was subjected to progeny tests. The largest number of progeny tests are represented by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) – 76 plots and a significantly smaller number of plots for English oak (Quercus robur L.) – 21. The corresponding representation of genotypes is for pine – 520, for oak – 365. The area of tree breeding units in Ukraine is very small (0.4–0.6%) of the total forest area in the region. Despite the available areas, the use of in situ and ex situ objects for harvesting seed in Ukraine is low, around 30%. In the central region of Ukraine, the share of in situ and ex situ objects from the total forest area is 0.1–0.5%. On these sites, from 0 to 54% is harvested, which is insufficient. According to the results of the conducted research, it was established that the areas of permanent forest-seed base (in situ and ex situ units) are insignificant and their use is insufficient. Testing of more than 70% of the selected plus trees is required. An important trend is to study the genotype-environment interaction in connection with trends of global climate change.