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- ItemA comparison of the selected properties of macrostructure and density of wood of scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on various mine soil substrates(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-05-19) Wąsik, Radosław; Pająk, Marek; Michalec, Krzysztof; Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, BartłomiejThe research was conducted on the external spoil heap of the ‘Piaseczno’ Sulphur Mine (southern Poland). This paper is aimed to compare the selected properties of macrostructure and density of wood of Scots pine trees planted onto the external spoil heap of the mine, in the scope of forest reclamation, depending on the soil substrate and employed reclamation treatments. The annual rings of pine trees on the Quaternary sands and Tertiary Krakowieckie clays (S&C) were significantly wider than those of the individuals on the Quaternary loose sands (S) and Quaternary sands and Tertiary clays after an intense initial fertilization (F). However, the share of latewood zone and density of wood of the pine trees growing on the substrate F were significantly greater in comparison to those of substrates S and S&C.
- ItemA function-based typology for Earth’s ecosystems(Springer Nature, 2022-10-12) Keith, David A; Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Nicholson, Emily; Bishop, Melanie J.; Polidoro, Beth A.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tozer, Mark G.; Nel, Jeanne L.; Mac Nally, Ralph; Gregr, Edward J.; Watermeyer, Kate E.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Franklin, Janet; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.; Etter, Andrés; Roux, Dirk J.; Stark, Jonathan S.; Rowland, Jessica A.; Brummitt, Neil A.; Frenandez-Arcaya, Ulla C.; Suthers, Iain M.; Wiser, Susan K.; Donohue, Ian; Jackson, Leland J.; Pennington, R. Toby; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Giller, Paul; Robson, Belinda J.; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Andrade, Angela; Lindgaard, Arild; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Terauds, Aleks; Chadwick, Michael A.; Murray, Nicholas J.; Moat, Justin; Plisoff, Patricio; Zager, Irene; Kingsford, Richard T.As the United Nations develops a post-2020 global biodiversity framework for the Convention on Biological Diversity, attention is focusing on how new goals and targets for ecosystem conservation might serve its vision of ‘living in harmony with nature’. Advancing dual imperatives to conserve biodiversity and sustain ecosystem services requires reliable and resilient generalizations and predictions about ecosystem responses to environmental change and management3. Ecosystems vary in their biota4, service provision5 and relative exposure to risks6, yet there is no globally consistent classification of ecosystems that reflects functional responses to change and management. This hampers progress on developing conservation targets and sustainability goals. Here we present the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Ecosystem Typology, a conceptually robust, scalable, spatially explicit approach for generalizations and predictions about functions, biota, risks and management remedies across the entire biosphere. The outcome of a major cross-disciplinary collaboration, this novel framework places all of Earth’s ecosystems into a unifying theoretical context to guide the transformation of ecosystem policy and management from global to local scales. This new information infrastructure will support knowledge transfer for ecosystem-specific management and restoration, globally standardized ecosystem risk assessments, natural capital accounting and progress on the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.
- ItemA global reptile assessment highlights shared conservation needs of tetrapods(Springer Nature, 2022-04-27) Cox, Neil; Young, Bruce E.; Bowles, Philip; Fernandez, Miguel; Marin, Julie; Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Böhm, Monika; Brooks, Thomas M.; Hedges, Blair; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffman, Michael; Jenkins, Richard K. B.; Tognelli, Marcelo F.; Alexander, Graham J.; Allison, Allen; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Auliya, Mark; Avila, Luciano Javier; Chapple, David G.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Cogger, Harold G.; Colli, Guarino R.; da Silva, Anslem; Eisemberg, Carla C.; Els, Johannes; Fong G., Ansel; Grant, Tandora D.; Hitchmough, Rodney A.; Iskander, Djoko T.; Kidera, Noriko; Martins, Marcio; Meiri, Shai; Mitchell, Nicola J.; Molur, Sanjay; Nogueira, Cristiano de C.; Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Penner, Johannes; Rhodin, Anders G. H.; Rivas, Gilson A.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Roll, Uri; Sanders, Kate L.; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Shea, Glenn M.; Spawls, Stephen; Stuart, Bryan L.; Tolley, Krystal A.; Trape, Jean-François; Vidal, Marcela A.; Wagner, Philipp; Wallace, Bryan P.; Xie, YanComprehensive assessments of species’ extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been omitted from conservation-prioritization analyses that encompass other tetrapods. Reptiles are unusually diverse in arid regions, suggesting that they may have different conservation needs. Here we provide a comprehensive extinction-risk assessment of reptiles and show that at least 1,829 out of 10,196 species (21.1%) are threatened—confirming a previous extrapolation and representing 15.6 billion years of phylogenetic diversity. Reptiles are threatened by the same major factors that threaten other tetrapods—agriculture, logging, urban development and invasive species—although the threat posed by climate change remains uncertain. Reptiles inhabiting forests, where these threats are strongest, are more threatened than those in arid habitats, contrary to our prediction. Birds, mammals and amphibians are unexpectedly good surrogates for the conservation of reptiles, although threatened reptiles with the smallest ranges tend to be isolated from other threatened tetrapods. Although some reptiles—including most species of crocodiles and turtles—require urgent, targeted action to prevent extinctions, efforts to protect other tetrapods, such as habitat preservation and control of trade and invasive species, will probably also benefit many reptiles.
- ItemA review of the Indian species of genus Polygraphus Erichson, 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with bio-ecological notes on P. major, a pest of Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jacks (Pinaceae) in Kashmir, India(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-09-18) Khanday, Abdul Lateef; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Kerchev, Ivan Andreevich; Singh, Sudhir; Zubair, R.M.The Indian species of the genus Polygraphus Erichson, 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) collected from various localities of the Western Himalayan region and the species available at the National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC), Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) were studied and are reviewed herewith. A key to Indian species of Polygraphus is provided. Detailed bioecological field and laboratory observations of P. major including mating behaviour, gallery pattern, life cycle and seasonal history are reported.
- ItemAccumulation of heavy metals in soil and litter of roadside plantations in Western Polissia of Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2021-09-19) Maksimtsev, Serhii; Dudarets, Serhii; Yukhnovskyi, VasylThe article presents the results of a study on the influence of roadside forest belts of different species composition on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and litter along roads of international and national importance in the conditions of Western Polissia of Ukraine. Mobile forms of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil and forest litter samples were deter mined in ammonium acetate extract buffer by atomic absorption spectrometry. The analysis of the content of heavy metals, their comparison with the maximum allowable concentrations depending on the composition of plantations and the category of the highway have been done. It is confirmed that roadside forest belts perform important functions in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and forest litter. It is confirmed that roadside forest belts perform important functions in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and forest litter. Among all the pollutants studied, the concentration of cadmium was the lowest and that of zinc the highest (especially in forest litter). Lead and copper in this indicator occupied an intermediate position. Despite the different species composition of plantations, the coefficient of concentration of heavy metals in the soil did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations and was on average in the range of 0.10–0.20 of these indicators. The greatest effect of delaying the migration of heavy metals was observed in forest litter. Therefore, in order to effectively use the biological barrier along the roads, it is necessary to create linear protective belts of deciduous species with Acer platanoides, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus and Tilia cordata, which give a rich annual litterfall.
- ItemActivity of spore-crystal mixtures of new Bacillus thuringiensis strains against Dendrolimus pini (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-07-20) Konecka, Edyta; Kaznowski, Adam; Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Maciąg, MirosławWe estimated the usefulness of spore-crystals preparations of the two B. thuringiensis isolates, MPU B9 and MPU B54, for reducing the number of pests. The potential insecticidal toxicities of B. thuringiensis isolates were assessed by the analysis of the genes coding for crystalline proteins. The activities of spore-crystals preparations were determined against Dendrolimus pini L. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and compared with the toxicity of spores and crystals of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 from commercial biopesticide Foray. Although the analysis of crystalline toxin gene profiles indicated potentially higher activities of MPU B9 and MPU B54 crystals against the pests than that of HD-1, the toxicities of isolate and HD-1 preparations against D. pini caterpillars were similar. The LC50 amounted to 3.42×104 spores and crystals for HD-1, 3.36×104 for MPU B9 and 3.5×104 for MPU B54. Additionally, the toxicity of the MPU B54 preparation was evaluated against Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The LC50 was 4.5×105 spores and crystals of MPU B54, and 2.69×106 spores and crystals of HD-1. The LC50 of the MPU B54 preparation against S. exigua was approximately six-fold higher than that of HD-1. However, due to the very wide fiducidal limits for LC50 values, which for both preparations overlap to a large extent, the toxicity of the preparations should be considered the same. The varied profiles of crystalline toxin genes and important toxicity of spore-crystal mixtures of isolates against S. exigua and D. pini indicate the effectiveness of the mixtures against pests and make the strains an alternative for HD-1 for reducing the number of insects.
- ItemAir temperature as a determinant of the forest line in the Tatras(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2021-09-19) Baranowski, Jarosław; Kędzia, StanisławThe forest line has been widely studied by a number of scientists representing various research disciplines. Changes in its position are an indicator of climate change. However, despite numerous studies, it is not always known what has the greatest influence on the position of the forest line. In the Tatras, which are Alpine mountains, the position of the forest line in places not disturbed by human activity or slope processes mainly depends on the annual mean air temperature and the number of days with negative temperature and its value in the warm season. The most unfavourable thermal conditions are found at the bottoms of concave landforms, just above the forest line. This thermal barrier effectively limits the upward movement of the forest line, even if the average annual temperature increases. Small concave landforms may have a higher vertical temperature gradient and lower air temperature values at their bottoms than larger and higher-lying forms.
- ItemAn attempt to assess the monetary value of carbon absorbed in the Polish forest sector(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-05-19) Jabłoński, Krzysztof; Stempski, WłodzimierzForests and forest management play a vital role in capture and storage of carbon dioxide, which contributes to mitigation of climate change. Forests are not only a natural carbon sink. Proper forest management can enhance biomass production, providing wood to be converted into e.g. construction timber, paper and furniture as well as wood fuels and, as a result, considerably enlarge this carbon sink. Poland, being a party of the Climate Convention and Kyoto Protocol and a member of the EU is obliged to provide yearly reports on carbon emissions and sequestration, includ ing the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector, of which forestry is the leading constituent. Forests, with the sequestration rate at a level of 3.93 t CO2·ha-1 form practically the only important carbon sink in the LULUCF category. Unfortunately the LULUCF sector has not been yet included in the current climate policy framework. The purpose of the study was an attempt to estimate the hypothetical value of carbon stored in forestry, resulting from the reported quantities of the emitted and sequestered carbon. The calculations were based on figures included in the National Inventory Report for Poland, reported yearly to the Secretariat of the Climate Convention. Among the forestry carbon sources/sinks, reported annually, the sequestration resulting from forest management significantly exceeds the net sequestration from afforestation/deforestation activities. Average data from recent years show that forest management is a net CO2 sink, with 12 Mt CO2·y-1 (above the forest management reference level, (FMRL), and when combined with the carbon pool change resulting from afforestation/deforestation activities, it can be regarded as a net carbon sink sequestering nearly 15 Mt CO2·y-1. That value, when multiplied by the price of carbon emission allowance (e.g. EUA), could be a source of over 80 mill Euros per year, if used as a commodity on the emissions market. Due to high price volatility of CO2 emission allowances, the calculated profits are hypothetical, and the EU Emissions Trading System does not include forestry. These potential gains can become realistic after the LULUCF sector has been included in the emissions trading system.
- ItemApplication of growth traits and qualitative indices for selection of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) elite trees. A case study from Volyn region, western Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-09-18) Voitiuk, Vasyl; Andreieva, Valentyna; Kychyliuk, Oleksandr; Hetmanchuk, Anatolii; Klisz, Marcin; Mohytych, VasylSince the plus trees are selected based on phenotype, it is necessary to evaluate them in progeny test. The aim of this study is an indication of selecting elite mother trees based on the results from half-sib progeny test trials. As study sites, two Scots pine half-sib progeny tests were selected. During evaluation, the progenies had reached the age of 38 and 40 years, respectively. In both progeny trials, quantitative parameters and qualitative traits of Scots pine half-sib progenies were investigated. Based on these data, complex evaluation of half-sib families was carried out. We concluded that, Scots pine progenies at the age of 38 and 40 years in fresh and moist mixed forests are characterised by acceptable quality, with the survival being 25%–33% per progeny test trial. Based on a complex evaluation of 38- and 40-year-old half-sib progenies of plus trees, we proposed to select 31% of tested plus/mother trees as candidates for elite trees. Further, the list of candidates for elite trees was created with five plus trees from the Volyn region (26% of the total tested from the region) and four plus trees from the Lviv region (40% of the total tested from the region). With age, the share of the best and undesirable trees decreases, while the proportion of intermediate trees increases in both control trees and half-sib progenies. At the age of 38 and 40 years, the proportion of fast-growing offspring was from 0% to 36%, while the declining trend that was observed in previous years was being continued. Thus, due to the declining trend in the proportion of fast-growing offspring observed at the age of 38 and 40 years, we propose to select candidate trees for an elite group not early than after 40 years of test their progenies.
- ItemAssessment of multiple model algorithms to predict earthworm geographic distribution range and biodiversity in Germany: implications for soil-monitoring and species-conservation needs(Springer Nature, 2023-04-19) Salako, Gabriel; Russell, David J.; Stucke, Andres; Eberhardt, EinarIdentifying the potential distribution of soil-biodiversity with its density and richness relationships, including constituent species, is a pre-requisite for the assessment, conservation and protection of soil biodiversity and the soil functions it drives. Although the role of earthworms in improving soil quality has long been established, to quantitatively and spatially assess how this soil-animal group’s distribution changes along environmental gradients and geographic space and the identification of the drivers of such change has not been fully investigated. This comprehensive study aimed at modelling and mapping earthworm spatial distribution and diversity patterns to determine their conservation needs and provide baseline reference data for Germany. The study compared multiple modelling algorithms to map earthworm community parameters and 12 species-specific distribution probabilities, calculate their geographic range sizes and determine responses to environmental predictor variables. Three general patterns of spatial distribution ranges were identified by the model predictions (large-range, mid-range, and restricted-range species) with the corresponding environmental contributions to the predictions. Modelled species responses to environmental predictors confirm observed environmental drivers of earthworm distribution in Germany. The range classes based both on distributional level and geographic space provide the necessary information for identifying conservation and decision-making priorities, especially for restricted-distribution species as well as those with clearly defined habitat preferences.
- ItemAutomatic Airborne Laser Scanning Data Quality Control Procedure for Environmental Studies(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-12-14) Kraszewski, Bartłomiej; Piasecka, Żaneta; Sadkowski, Rafał; Stereńczak, KrzysztofAirborne laser scanning (ALS) technology delivers large amount of data collected from airborne level. These data are used for many different applications in forestry, civil engineering, environmental studies and others. To acquire the best possible results from the data, accuracy analysis is a necessary part of data processing chain. Therefore, considering the increasing interest worldwide in the use of laser scanning data, improving the quality control (QC) tools is a crucial pursuit. This study underlines the possible error sources, summarises the existing QC knowledge for ALS data and proposes an optimised QC procedure. The procedure was implemented in selected applications and evaluated for three different environments, namely, forests, rural areas and croplands. The proposed solution is almost fully automatic outside from the module that supports the operator in the clas sification examination. The workflow is scalable and can be expanded with new modules that enhance the functionality. The presented procedures can save up to 30 min of manual checks for every 1 km2 area.
- ItemBacterial wetwood of silver birch (Betula pendula roth): symptomology, etiology and pathogenesis(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-09-18) Goychuk, Anatoliy F; Drozda, Valentin F.; Shvets, Marina V; Kulbanska, IvannaThe article is focused on microbiological and silvicultural properties of bacterial wetwood of silver birch (Betula pendula), also known as European white birch. During the active phase of the disease, bacterial wetwood (i.e. bacterial dropsy, vascular parenchymatous bacteriosis or flux slime) is characterised by crust and periderm bloating, necrotic wet stains and abundance of exudate. The disease is more likely to occur in older (r = 0.56, p < 0.01) and less-dense (r = −0.29, p < 0.01) stands. The statistical model showed that the chance of bacterial wetwood increases with birch age by 0.36% per year. The stands with birch proportion of over 70% demonstrated 15.3% lower infection rate compared to the stands with lower birch presence. The stands with lower stocking demonstrated a higher proportion of infected tree distribution by 7.5% compared to the stands with higher birch representation. The most vulnerable were larger, older B. pendula trees with longitudinally fissured bark that grow on poorer soils and experience frequent water stress. Birch associations with Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus were more susceptible to infection (31.6% and 44.3%, respectively), whereas associations with Brachypodium sylvaticum, Sphagnum palustre and Calluna vul garis were at lower risk. Strong ecological and trophic association of bacterial wetwood was present between silver birch and Tremex spp., particularly Tremex fuscicornis. Mycobiota was represented by Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium purpurogenum and Acremonium strictum. Enterobacter, Xanthomonas, Pantoea and Bacillus spp. associated with bacterial wetwood of silver birch were isolated. Enterobacter nimipressuralis was found to be the primary causative agent through means of artificial infection, while other bacteria were found to be either weak pathogens or concomitant. E. nimipressuralis formed the largest number of colony-forming units (CFU) for bark and cambium (164 and 127 CFU, respectively) and was also found in a small amount as a vital obligate in the automicrobiota in healthy birch trees.
- ItemBioindication of megalopolis park ecosystems under aerotechnogenic loading(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2022-03-11) Miroshnyk, Nataliіa; Grabovska, Tetіana; Mazura, Marina; Teslenko, IgorThis study focuses on the influence of motor transport on various indicators of park ecosystems and Taraxacum officinale Web., as well as on their applicability to the bioindication of the urban environments in the largest megalopolis of Ukraine, namely, Kyiv. Our investigations were carried out in 14 park ecosystems exposed to different levels of aerotechnogenic loading: low pollution level in Pushcha-Vodytsya (park) and outskirts, average pollution level along seven roads with medium traffic and high pollution level along eight highways. Pollen indication, integration and statistical methods were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of the impact of air pollutants. The aim is to assess the impact of vehicle emissions on the state of park ecosystems in the metropolis using bioindication and GIS technologies. The effects of air pollution on green infrastructure at the level of cells, organisms, groups and ecosystems in time and space are revealed. Under the influence of aerotechnogenic pollution, there is a deterioration of trees, their drying, defoliation of crowns and deterioration of integral indicators of park ecosystems. Using QGIS (Free open source geographic information system, version 3.12.3 „București”, May 15, 2020), we have created maps for the spread of air pollutants. The highest levels of air pollution and damage to parks were concentrated in the central part of the city with dense buildings and near heavy traffic roads. The average daily maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of phytotoxicants exceeded 1.5 MACa.d. and depended on the terrain and directions of the prevailing winds. We registered degradation of the megalopolis ecological state by 19.3% for 7 years.
- ItemBlack cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) colonization by macrofungi in the fourth season of its decline due to different control measures in the Kampinos National Park(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-06-29) Marciszewska, Katarzyna; Szczepkowski, Andrzej; Otręba, AnnaThe experiment conducted in the Kampinos National Park since 2015 was aimed at assessing the sprouting ability of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in response to different measures of mechanical control and mycobiota coloniz-ing the dying trees. Basal cut-stump, cutting at ca. 1 m above the ground and girdling were performed on 4 terms, two plots and applied to 25 trees, 600 trees in total. Sprouts were removed every 8 weeks since the initial treatment for 4 consecutive growing seasons, except winter-treated trees. At the end of the fourth season of control, 515 out of 600 trees were dead (86%): 81% on Lipków and 90% on Sieraków plot. Among 18 experiment variants with sprouts removal, 17 showed more than 80% of dead trees. The lowest, 76% share, concerned summer cut-stump at the base of the tree. For winter measures, the share of dead trees was lower in all cases and ranged from 28% to 64% proving that sprouts removal contributes to the drop of sprouting strength and quicker dying of the trees. Almost 80% of trees showed sporocarps that represented 51 taxa of macrofungi in total, including 6 Ascomycota and 45 Basidiomycota. The group of six most frequently encountered fungi includes: Hyphoderma setigerum, Bjerkandera adusta, Peni-ophora cinerea, Armillaria ostoyae, Nectria cinnabarina, Stereum hirsutum. Both plots had similar share of black cherry individuals with sporocarps of macrofungi, that is, 81% and 78% for Sieraków and Lipków respectively. The share of colonized trees and the number of reported macrofungal taxa increased significantly compared to the year following the treatment. In addition, the composition of macrofungi changed with the progressing dying of trees. These results broaden the knowledge about macroscopic fungi colonising and living on black cherry within its sec-ondary range of distribution. Moreover, one macrofungus and two microfungi new for KNP are reported.
- ItemCan changes in forest management contribute to the reduction of CO2 in the atmosphere? Literature review, discussion and Polish example(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2019-12-30) Adamowicz, Krzysztof; Keca, LjiljanaBoth COP21 and COP22 stressed the role of forests in climate protection as a natural CO2 sink. With this in mind, the study reviewed some literature findings related to afforestation, stand level management, forest soils, peatland management and storage yards to increase the amount of CO2 absorbed by the forest ecosystem. It was shown that some of the assumptions, for example, afforestation or improved water relations in soils, may contribute to reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Our research was of a review nature and consisted in seeking information in various scientific publications. For a better interpretation of the results, we have divided our research into several parts. In the first part, we analysed the importance of deforestation and afforestation in the context of CO2 accumulation. We discussed the results of research on these issues giving specific examples. We have analysed the possibility of afforestation of new land. Using the example of Poland, we have indicated problems related to this issue. We have analysed the possibility of afforestation of new land. On the example of Poland, we have indicated problems related to this problem. We have come to the conclusion that in today’s Europe, the obstacle to such efforts is the lack of land that can be afforested and the financial incentive to abandon farming for forestry is too low. In the second part, we discussed the role of forest stands in the process of CO2 accumulation and reduction. We discussed breeding treatments that can be performed on racks. We noticed their importance in the CO2 reduction process. We noticed that when the density of forests increased, this has a positive effect on organic carbon storage. We presented and discussed examples of different rotation strategies in the context of their impact on CO2 accumulation. We analysed issues related to obtaining wood raw material and possible further storage of coal or its release into the atmosphere. We have recognized that proper forest soil management is important for CO2 accumulation. Therefore, another part of the research was devoted to the discussion on the role of soil in the process of CO2 accumulation. We discussed examples of using soil for forest and non-forest purposes, looking for the answer: how does this affect CO2 accumulation? In addition, we analysed the impact of soil moisture on processes related to CO2 storage. In our research, we critically treated wood storage as a method of reducing CO2. We also discussed the problem of treating wood as a source of bioenergy. We came to the conclusion that wood as an energy source can have a positive effect on CO2 reduction. The condition is, however, that energy produced from wood replaces energy from fossil fuels. Finally, we presented and discussed financial and legal issues related to CO2 reduction activities involving forests. We have found that attempts to commercialize CO2 emission reduction units for emissions generated in forests should be linked to the environmental responsibility of companies, and as such, should not be included in the current emissions’ trading policies. In the article, we also present a Polish proposal to run coal farms. We discuss their importance in the context of the issues discussed in this article.
- ItemCarbon sequestration of above-ground biomass of Pinus sylvestris L. in the green belt of the city of Astana(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-10-27) Tumenbayeva, Assel R.; Sarsekova, Dani N.; Małek, StanisławThe article presents the results of research in the pine plantations located in the green belt of the city of Astana, the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan, and in the research, the data on biomass and carbon content in various fractions of Scots pine were obtained. Assessment of morphometric parameters of the pine stands was carried out by measuring tree height and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH); to determine the carbon content, laboratory analytical methods were used. Samples were taken from each element of biomass (branches, trunk, leaves, and bark) of Scots pine, in triplicate. After that, the green mass was weighed on the analytical scales to within 0.001 g. The samples were then dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 65°C. In laboratory samples without mineralization, the content of carbon was determined using element analyser. Regression equations were used to calculate the bio-mass of stocks. To measure the taxation indicators and sampling of plantations, trial plots were laid in triplicate for trial plots, the height of plantations varied on average from 5.8 m to 8.4 m on the plotted trial plots, and the diameter of the trunk varied from 7.7 cm to 8.8 cm. The correlation between plant height and stem diameter was 0.745. As the studies of chemical composition in needles, bark, trunk and branches of pine trees showed, the amount of carbon was from 50.03 to 51.33%. Thus, the study of the chemical composition of the pine plantations showed that the greatest content of chemical elements, such as carbon, was in tree needles. The accumulation plantations of Pinus sylvestris L. in the green belt of the city of Astana were sequestrated 973.3 tons of carbon in the above-ground biomass varied from 2.9 to 4.8 t/ha.
- ItemCharacteristics and current situation of urban forests in Kharkiv region(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-10-27) Musienko, S.; Lyalin, O.; Tkach, L.; Babenko, V.; Sułkowska, M.The main aim of our study was to examine the current state and to analyse the prospects of the development of urban forests in the city of Kharkiv. Modern methods of assessment and forest resources ranking were used in the evaluation process. The data from the last basic forest inventory and the electronic database of the ‘Ukrderzhlisproekt’ Production Association are used. Conducted investigation enables to assess the state of the urban forests in Kharkiv, to show the division of forest resources by the land category, to list the species composition according to the forests stakeholders as well as to compare the existing and optimal division subject to the age group and to calculate the average forest valuation indicators. Our results indicated that the urban forests have different indicators in the context of permanent users. The existing division of the forest stands by the age group and average forest valuation indicators do not satisfy the optimal ones. Thereby, the vital problem in solving the issue of the conducting forestry in the urban forests transferred to the scientific base for the provision of their optimal growth, development and carrying out of their functions in full exists to date.
- ItemColeopterous predators of pine bark beetles in the last years of the outbreak recorded in Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2022-09-22) Meshkova, Valentyna; Vorobei, Alla; Omelich, AnastasiyaThe purpose of this study was to identify the species composition of coleopterous predators and their occurrence in different parts of the stem depending on the health condition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the collapsing foci of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). The research was carried out in 2019–2021 at 38 sample plots located in five State Forestry Enterprises of Sumy region (Ukraine). All sample plots are located in pure Scots pine stands in relatively poor forest site conditions. The relative density of stocking is 0.6–0.7, and the age of stands is between 60 and 110 years. The health condition for each tree was evaluated on visual characteristics by the classes: first – healthy; second – weakened; third – severely weakened; fourth – drying up; fifth – recently died and sixth – died over a year ago. Bark beetles’ nuptial chambers and predators were counted on 25 × 25 cm pallets, which were located at the lower, middle and upper parts of the stem with thin, thick and transitional bark, respectively. The significance of differences in the performance of predator species depending on the tree part, health condition and year was analysed using the nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis (K–W) test. The species composition of predators in different years, stem parts and tree health condition was compared using the Sorensen–Chekanovsky index. In the collapsing foci of bark beetles, the health condition of Scots pine in 2019–2021 tended to worsen. The infestation density of Ips acuminatus (Gyllenhal, 1827) and Ips sexdentatus (Boerner, 1767) was 0.62 ± 0.032 and 0.64 ± 0.017 nuptial chambers per 1 dm2, respectively, and also decreased in 2019–2021. In the galleries of bark beetles, seven species of coleopterous predators were collected: Aulonium ruficorne (Olivier, 1790) (Zopheridae), Platy soma elongatum (Leach, 1817) (Histeridae), Rhizophagus depressus (Fabricius, 1792) (Monotomidae), Corticeus pini (Panzer, 1799) (Tenebrionidae), Thanasimus formicarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Thanasimus femoralis (Zetterstedt, 1828) (Cleridae) and Salpingus ruficollis (Linnaeus, 1761) (Salpingidae). Two more species – Glischrochilus quadripunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nitidulidae) and Pytho depressus (Linnaeus, 1767) (Pythidae) – were singly collected in the foci. T. formicarius and P. elongatum were the most abundant. The ratio of predator–prey significantly increased from the upper to the lower part of the stem with thick bark. It, however, decreased in this stem part from the fourth to the sixth class of the health condition of the host tree.
- ItemColonization of hardwood and pine wood chips by mites (Acari), with particular reference to oribatid mites (Oribatida)(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-05-19) Klimek, Andrzej; Chachaj, BogusławThe study was conducted in the years 2011–2012, in a forest nursery in Białe Błota (Bydgoszcz Forest District). The experiment was established in a 20 m wide belt of trees within a 110 years old stand growing on mixed fresh coniferous forest site. Litter bags containing hardwood and pine wood chips were placed on mineral soil of microplots and covered with a 5 cm layer of litter. The pattern of chips colonization differed between mites belonging to different orders. Predatory Mesostigmata colonized hardwood chips gradually but they were present in high numbers in pine chips from the beginning of the study. Abundance of Actinedida fluctuated within the two-year study cycle. Contrary to that, oribatid mites, which were a predominant mite type, colonized both types of chips gradually, while preferring the pine ones. At the end of the study, the structure of mite communities and mite abundance in pine chips were more similar to forest soil than in hardwood chips. The experiment demonstrated that pine chips provided most oribatid mites with more favorable living conditions than hardwood chips, as they were colonized at a quicker rate and by a greater number of species. The most abundant oribatid mite in both substrates was a eurytopic Tectocepheus velatus that showed no clear preferences towards either of the substrates. Majority of oribatid mites, e.g. Oppiella nova, Metabelba pulverulenta, Oribatula tibialis, Chamobates schuetzi, Galumna lanceata, preferred pine chips. The only species with clear preference for hardwood chips was Eniochthonius minutissimus. A comparison of usefulness of hardwood and pine wood chips in revitalization of degraded soils based on bioindication approach indicated higher suitability of pine chips that are also more available in Polish forests.
- ItemComparative analysis of natural and artificial regeneration in Nowa Dęba Forest District(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2019-10-07) Długosiewicz, Justyna; Zając, Stanisław; Wysocka-Fijorek, Emilia; Sułkowska, MałgorzataNew challenges related to the multifunctional role of forests in consideration of both natural environment and economy come into view sequentially. In current forestry practice, an important element is not only the quality of forest cultivations (silvicultural aspect) but also the costs incurred for their production and tending (economic aspect). The main purpose of this article is to show the prospect of increasing positive silvicultural effects depending on the method used in management of Scots pine stands under given site conditions. The comparative analysis was carried out using the study results obtained in the Forest District Nowa Dęba and those presented in other relevant studies. In the present study, we examined whether the site conditions have significant effects on silvicultural and economic effectiveness of regeneration and development of Scots pine stands or those predominated by Scots pine in the initial stages of stand growth. Significance of the regeneration method effects on growth characteristics of Scots pine regeneration as well as the costs of forest cultivation management was analysed. The study on silvicultural and economic effectiveness was carried out in the Forest District Nowa Dęba. The results obtained showed that using Scots pine natural regeneration under the conditions of fresh coniferous forest site and fresh mixed coniferous forest site was the way of management based on reason. This was supported by both the values of regeneration growth parameters and silvicultural quality along with clearly lower expenditures incurred to achieve these effects. In wet mixed coniferous site, Scots pine seedlings regenerated naturally; however, the results indicated their lower silvicultural quality and growth parameter values when compared to those artificially regenerated. In fresh mixed broadleaved forest site, equally for silvicultural and economic reasons, the more optimal option was to regenerate forest using traditional planting material as natural Scots pine regeneration showed lower silvicultural effects. The unit costs of regeneration and maintenance of stands with self-sown Scots pine in fresh mixed broadleaved forest site were higher when compared with other examined forest sites.On the basis of the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regardless of the regeneration method examined, the most differentiating factor of the final economic effect of Scots pine stand establishment and maintenance was the cost of regeneration operation. The expenditure for this purpose consumed the largest part of expenses incurred in artificial regeneration variant. The higher cost of corrections in artificially planted forest cultivations in poorer forest sites was one of the reasons behind the profitable final balance of naturally regenerating Scots pine stands. Differences between other costs analysed were not significant. The results of the present study may contribute to comprehensive assessments of natural and artificial ways of forest regeneration and indicate forest production costs that are the most closely related to site conditions.