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    Agroforestry: A primer
    (CIFOR-ICRAF - The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and World Agroforestry (ICRAF), 2022) Gassner, Anja; Dobie, Philip
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    The effect of agroforestry farming on wood quality and timber industry and its supportation by Horizon 2020
    (Springer Nature, 2023) Báder, Mátyás; Németh, Róbert; Vörös, Ágnes; Tóth, Zsolt; Novotini, Adrienn
    One of the goals of the European Union’s agroforestry plans is to alleviate the shortage of timber in Europe caused by the growing demand for hardwoods and the declining import of tropical timber. The study shows which tree species can be considered in agroforestry systems in Europe, and which of them can be used as raw material for the wood industry and what quality of wood can be produced in agroforestry systems. Since 2005, the European Union has been officially encouraging farmers to plant the crops in an agroforestry system and parallel try to produce trunks for high quality timber. By analysing the current economic developments of the European Union, especially Horizon 2020, our study provides an overview of what can be expected by the participants of the agroforestry sector and the related primary wood industry in the European Union now and in the future. In addition to the distribution analysis, indices describing projects have also been created. Rank correlation was used to examine the relationship between them. Possible decision mechanisms were also outlined using a custom-built expert software system.
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    Unravelling sustainable intensifcation in oil‑palm agroforestry on the Adja plateau, Benin
    (Springer Nature, 2023) Yemadje, Rolland H.; Koussihouèdé, Hermione; Rafflegeau, Sylvain
    Pathways for mediating the competing land-use claims of landowners and tenants in oil palm agroforestry systems in Benin’s Adja plateau do not consider the diversity of land-management practices. Therefore, we analysed how soil properties and maize yields in those systems are affected by two contrasting categories of land-management practices and fertilisation options. We used a synchronic approach to split these practices and options into two successive steps. In Step 1, referred to as cropped fields, tenants continuously intercrop maize among scattered oil palms. In Step 2, referred to as fallows, the land is densely planted with oil palm, without intercropping. Twelve farmers’ fields were selected for this study. Eight represent cropping fields, and four are 15-year-old oil-palm fallows. Cropped field fertilisation treatments consisted of farmyard manure (at 15 and 30 t ha−1) and mineral fertiliser (150 kg ha−1 of N14P18K18S6B1 + 50 kg ha−1 of urea). We found no significant differences between the N contents and C:N ratios of the two types of fields. However, the numbers and masses of earthworm casts were higher in cropped fields treated with farmyard manure than with mineral fertiliser. Farmyard manure (15 and 30 t ha−1 rates) also produced significantly higher maize yields (respectively, 2.5 and 3.2 t ha−1) than the mineral fertiliser alone (1.9 t of maize per ha). We conclude by discussing N, K and P storage in soil, and recommended use of farmyard manure as an agroforestry practice that will benefit landowners and tenants alike on the Adja plateau.
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    The role of shade tree pruning in cocoa agroforestry systems: agronomic and economic benefts
    (Springer Nature, 2023) Esche, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Milz, Joachim; Armengot, Laura
    Cocoa-based agroforests are promoted to replace monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services. However, shade tree pruning, an important tool to sustain cocoa yields, is not commonly implemented. This study investigates the effect of pruning on both agronomic and economic performance. In Bolivia, four famers’ sites were divided in half, and shade trees pruned in one of the two plots. Pruning resulted in a significant increase in cocoa yield, from an average of 430 to 710 kg ha−1 by boosting flowering and pod production, but not reducing the proportion of damaged pods, and of those lost to cherelle wilt. Additionally, scenario calculations using international and organic premium cocoa prices were conducted to evaluate the economic feasibility of pruning. The minimum, mean and maximum yield of 22 local cocoa-based agroforestry farms were used as reference for 25, 50 and 75% yield increase scenarios. Offsetting the pruning costs highly depended on the initial yield levels. Using the minimum yield, all scenarios led to a lower net income compared with no pruning. For the mean yield level, the net income was equal to that obtained without pruning when the yield increase was above 51%. At the maximum yield level, all increase scenarios resulted in a higher net income. Our results prove the importance of pruning agroforestry trees to increase cocoa yields. However, with current farm-gate prices for cocoa, farmers alone cannot cover the extra management costs. The cocoa sector should discuss different strategies to support pruning for a broader adoption of agroforests.
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    Farmers’ willingness to adopt silvopastoral systems: investigating cattle producers’ compensation claims and attitudes using a contingent valuation approach
    (Springer Nature, 2023) Opdenbosch, Harold; Hansson, Helena
    Intensive cattle production systems are currently a major contributor to CO2 emissions and biodiversity loss. Silvopastoral systems that combine foraging pastures and trees into an integrated system for raising livestock have been suggested a promising avenue to store carbon and preserve farmland biodiversity. However, investments and maintenance costs for these improvements are paid by producers, who reap few of the environmental benefits. The objective of the present study was to assess farmers’ willingness to adopt silvopastoral systems by reforesting treeless pastures, their compensation claims related to adoption, and how both are affected by their attitudes towards silvopastoral systems. This study was based on a contingent valuation approach coupled with exploratory factor analysis to obtain measures of attitudinal constructs derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior. Results indicate that 52% of respondents were willing to adopt silvopastoral systems and the mean compensation claim per year per hectare is estimated at SEK 3107.17 (308€). Adoption decision is positively correlated with attitudes towards silvopastoral systems, suggesting that decision-making is not solely driven by profit maximization through concerns related to pecuniary factors.