Spatiotemporal variations in urban CO2 flux with land-use types in Seoul

Background Cities are a major source of atmospheric CO2; however, understanding the surface CO2 exchange processes that determine the net CO2 flux emitted from each city is challenging owing to the high heterogeneity of urban land use. Therefore, this study investigates the spatiotemporal variations of urban CO2 flux over the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea from 2017 to 2018, using CO2 flux measurements at nine sites with different urban land-use types (baseline, residential, old town residential, commercial, and vegetation areas). Results Annual CO2 flux significantly varied from 1.09 kg C m− 2 year− 1 at the baseline site to 16.28 kg C m− 2 year− 1 at the old town residential site in the Seoul Capital Area. Monthly CO2 flux variations were closely correlated with the vegetation activity (r = − 0.61) at all sites; however, its correlation with building energy usage differed for each land-use type (r = 0.72 at residential sites and r = 0.34 at commercial sites). Diurnal CO2 flux variations were mostly correlated with traffic volume at all sites (r = 0.8); however, its correlation with the floating population was the opposite at residential (r = − 0.44) and commercial (r = 0.80) sites. Additionally, the hourly CO2 flux was highly related to temperature. At the vegetation site, as the temperature exceeded 24 ℃, the sensitivity of CO2 absorption to temperature increased 7.44-fold than that at the previous temperature. Conversely, the CO2 flux of non-vegetation sites increased when the temperature was less than or exceeded the 18 ℃ baseline, being three-times more sensitive to cold temperatures than hot ones. On average, non-vegetation urban sites emitted 0.45 g C m− 2 h− 1 of CO2 throughout the year, regardless of the temperature. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that most urban areas acted as CO2 emission sources in all time zones; however, the CO2 flux characteristics varied extensively based on urban land-use types, even within cities. Therefore, multiple observations from various land-use types are essential for identifying the comprehensive CO2 cycle of each city to develop effective urban CO2 reduction policies.
© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data. The Version of Scholarly Record of this Article is published in Carbon Balance and Management, 2023, available online at: . Keywords: CO2 flux; annual cycle of CO2 flux; diurnal cycle of CO2 flux; urban; eddy covariance; CO2 emissions; land-use types; Seoul.
Park, C., Jeong, S., Park, MS. et al. Spatiotemporal variations in urban CO2 flux with land-use types in Seoul. Carbon Balance Manage 17, 3 (2022).