Browsing by Author "Mathew, Isack"
Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
Results Per Page
ItemBreeding for silicon-use efficiency, protein content and drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a review(Taylor & Francis Group - Informa UK Limited, 2022-10-04) Christian, Marylyn M.; Shimelis, Hussein; Laing, Mark D.; Tsilo, Toi J.; Mathew, IsackThe production and quality of wheat are affected by abiotic constraints including water stress and soil nutrient deficiencies. It is imperative to develop drought-tolerant wheat varieties with high yield potential and enhanced grain protein content for food security. Silicon (Si) is important for plant growth and development but its role in abiotic stress tolerance has been overlooked in breeding programs. Identifying the underlying functional genes controlling drought tolerance, protein content and grain yield is essential for wheat improvement, especially under drought stress. Silicon uptake is conditioned by several Si transporter genes such as Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6 and aquaporins, which facilitate transport of silicon and water between cells. The objectives of this review are to examine the role of Si in improving plant nutrition and drought tolerance, and to appraise the genetic control of Si uptake and breeding methods for improving Si uptake for drought adaptation and improved grain yield and quality. The review highlights the limited progress made in breeding for drought tolerance in wheat, especially in sub-Sahara Africa where the challenge is prevalent. Limited understanding of the genetic basis for Si uptake and physiology contribute to the limited progress in its exploitation in wheat improvement programs. ItemWheat production in the highlands of Eastern Ethiopia: opportunities, challenges and coping strategies of rust diseases(Taylor & Francis Group - Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-09) Nigus, Mulu; Shimelis, Hussein; Mathew, Isack; Abady, SelteneEthiopia is the primary wheat producer in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) owing to the suitable agro-ecological conditions. Despite wheats economic potential for food security, the actual yield under smallholder farmers conditions is low due to various production constraints. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the present wheat production opportunities and constraints and identify farmer-preferred traits to guide variety design with stem rust-resistance and economic traits in eastern Ethiopia. Data on production constraints and trait preferences were collected using structured questionnaires involving 144 wheat-producing farmers. Wheat rust (reported by 97.3% of respondents), small land size (90.4%) and a lack of improved varieties (75.6%) were identified as the major constraints. About 41.7% of respondents in the West-Hararghe and 27.8% in the East-Hararghe zones did not use crop protection strategies to control rusts. Substantial respondent farmers used cultural practices (18.8%), rust-resistant cultivars (13.2%) or, a combination of these (10.4%) to control rust diseases. The essential farmer preferred traits in a wheat variety were rust resistance, high yield potential and good quality grain for bread making. Therefore, there is a need to breed new varieties with high grain yield and quality and durable rust resistance for sustainable wheat production in eastern Ethiopia.