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- ItemA comparison of field assessment methods for lucerne inoculation experiments(Taylor & Francis Group - Informa UK Limited, 2022-08-16) Tang, Lin; Morel, Julien; Halling, Magnus; Öhlund, Linda; Parsons, DavidEffective and practical measurement methods for assessing field inoculation experiments are needed to identify inoculants that could improve lucerne establishment. In this study, assessment potential of different existing measurement methods (plant height, Dualex 4 Scientific leaf-clip meter, GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor, drone-acquired orthomosaic calculation, yield, nutrient analysis and nodule assessment) were compared across 12 inoculation treatments applied to lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) at 3 sites. F-values were used to compare the potential of different methods to separate inoculation treatments. The handheld GreenSeeker measuring normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) showed the greatest potential for separating inoculation treatments in fields where lucerne had not previously been cultivated, followed by visible atmospherically resistant index (VARI) and green-red vegetation index (GRVI) from drone-acquired orthomosaics. These methods are non-destructive, low cost, require low labour input, fast, and do not require sample preparation, and thus are efficient measurement methods for disaggregating treatments in field inoculation experiments.
- ItemA comparison of the selected properties of macrostructure and density of wood of scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on various mine soil substrates(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-05-19) Wąsik, Radosław; Pająk, Marek; Michalec, Krzysztof; Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, BartłomiejThe research was conducted on the external spoil heap of the ‘Piaseczno’ Sulphur Mine (southern Poland). This paper is aimed to compare the selected properties of macrostructure and density of wood of Scots pine trees planted onto the external spoil heap of the mine, in the scope of forest reclamation, depending on the soil substrate and employed reclamation treatments. The annual rings of pine trees on the Quaternary sands and Tertiary Krakowieckie clays (S&C) were significantly wider than those of the individuals on the Quaternary loose sands (S) and Quaternary sands and Tertiary clays after an intense initial fertilization (F). However, the share of latewood zone and density of wood of the pine trees growing on the substrate F were significantly greater in comparison to those of substrates S and S&C.
- ItemA function-based typology for Earth’s ecosystems(Springer Nature, 2022-10-12) Keith, David A; Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Nicholson, Emily; Bishop, Melanie J.; Polidoro, Beth A.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tozer, Mark G.; Nel, Jeanne L.; Mac Nally, Ralph; Gregr, Edward J.; Watermeyer, Kate E.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Franklin, Janet; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.; Etter, Andrés; Roux, Dirk J.; Stark, Jonathan S.; Rowland, Jessica A.; Brummitt, Neil A.; Frenandez-Arcaya, Ulla C.; Suthers, Iain M.; Wiser, Susan K.; Donohue, Ian; Jackson, Leland J.; Pennington, R. Toby; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Giller, Paul; Robson, Belinda J.; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Andrade, Angela; Lindgaard, Arild; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Terauds, Aleks; Chadwick, Michael A.; Murray, Nicholas J.; Moat, Justin; Plisoff, Patricio; Zager, Irene; Kingsford, Richard T.As the United Nations develops a post-2020 global biodiversity framework for the Convention on Biological Diversity, attention is focusing on how new goals and targets for ecosystem conservation might serve its vision of ‘living in harmony with nature’. Advancing dual imperatives to conserve biodiversity and sustain ecosystem services requires reliable and resilient generalizations and predictions about ecosystem responses to environmental change and management3. Ecosystems vary in their biota4, service provision5 and relative exposure to risks6, yet there is no globally consistent classification of ecosystems that reflects functional responses to change and management. This hampers progress on developing conservation targets and sustainability goals. Here we present the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Ecosystem Typology, a conceptually robust, scalable, spatially explicit approach for generalizations and predictions about functions, biota, risks and management remedies across the entire biosphere. The outcome of a major cross-disciplinary collaboration, this novel framework places all of Earth’s ecosystems into a unifying theoretical context to guide the transformation of ecosystem policy and management from global to local scales. This new information infrastructure will support knowledge transfer for ecosystem-specific management and restoration, globally standardized ecosystem risk assessments, natural capital accounting and progress on the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.
- ItemA genealogy of sustainable agriculture narratives: implications for the transformative potential of regenerative agriculture(Springer Nature, 2023-05-01) Bless, Anja; Davila, Federico; Plant, RoelThe agri-food system is facing a range of social-ecological threats, many of which are caused and amplified by industrial agriculture. In response, numerous sustainable agriculture narratives have emerged, proposing solutions to the challenges facing the agri-food system. One such narrative that has recently risen to prominence is regenerative agriculture. However, the drivers for the rapid emergence of regenerative agriculture are not well understood. Furthermore, its transformative potential for supporting a more sustainable agri-food system is underexplored. Through a genealogical analysis of four prominent sustainable agriculture narratives; organic agriculture, conservation agriculture, sustainable intensification, and agroecology; we consider how regenerative agriculture’s growing momentum can be contextualised within existing narratives and explore the implications this might have for its transformative potential. This analysis reveals that the genealogies of these sustainable agriculture narratives have led to a number of contestations and complementarities which have coalesced to drive the emergence of regenerative agriculture. We also find that, in contrast to agroecology, regenerative agriculture shares with other Global North narratives a limited scope for offering transformative pathways for agricultural production. This is largely due to their inadequate consideration of power and equity issues in the agri-food system. We argue that regenerative agriculture therefore risks inhibiting deeper agri-food system transformations that address both social and ecological challenges and is not the unifying sustainable agriculture narrative it claims to be. Nonetheless, regenerative agriculture could contribute towards a broader plurality of sustainable agriculture narratives that collectively might enable a transformation to a more sustainable, diverse, and just agri-food system.
- ItemA global reptile assessment highlights shared conservation needs of tetrapods(Springer Nature, 2022-04-27) Cox, Neil; Young, Bruce E.; Bowles, Philip; Fernandez, Miguel; Marin, Julie; Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Böhm, Monika; Brooks, Thomas M.; Hedges, Blair; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffman, Michael; Jenkins, Richard K. B.; Tognelli, Marcelo F.; Alexander, Graham J.; Allison, Allen; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Auliya, Mark; Avila, Luciano Javier; Chapple, David G.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Cogger, Harold G.; Colli, Guarino R.; da Silva, Anslem; Eisemberg, Carla C.; Els, Johannes; Fong G., Ansel; Grant, Tandora D.; Hitchmough, Rodney A.; Iskander, Djoko T.; Kidera, Noriko; Martins, Marcio; Meiri, Shai; Mitchell, Nicola J.; Molur, Sanjay; Nogueira, Cristiano de C.; Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Penner, Johannes; Rhodin, Anders G. H.; Rivas, Gilson A.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Roll, Uri; Sanders, Kate L.; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Shea, Glenn M.; Spawls, Stephen; Stuart, Bryan L.; Tolley, Krystal A.; Trape, Jean-François; Vidal, Marcela A.; Wagner, Philipp; Wallace, Bryan P.; Xie, YanComprehensive assessments of species’ extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been omitted from conservation-prioritization analyses that encompass other tetrapods. Reptiles are unusually diverse in arid regions, suggesting that they may have different conservation needs. Here we provide a comprehensive extinction-risk assessment of reptiles and show that at least 1,829 out of 10,196 species (21.1%) are threatened—confirming a previous extrapolation and representing 15.6 billion years of phylogenetic diversity. Reptiles are threatened by the same major factors that threaten other tetrapods—agriculture, logging, urban development and invasive species—although the threat posed by climate change remains uncertain. Reptiles inhabiting forests, where these threats are strongest, are more threatened than those in arid habitats, contrary to our prediction. Birds, mammals and amphibians are unexpectedly good surrogates for the conservation of reptiles, although threatened reptiles with the smallest ranges tend to be isolated from other threatened tetrapods. Although some reptiles—including most species of crocodiles and turtles—require urgent, targeted action to prevent extinctions, efforts to protect other tetrapods, such as habitat preservation and control of trade and invasive species, will probably also benefit many reptiles.
- ItemA life cycle and product type based estimator for quantifying the carbon stored in wood products(Springer Nature, 2023-01-23) Wei, Xinyuan; Zhao, Jianheng; Hayes, Daniel J.; Daigneault, Adam; Zhu, HeBackground Timber harvesting and industrial wood processing laterally transfer the carbon stored in forest sectors to wood products creating a wood products carbon pool. The carbon stored in wood products is allocated to end-use wood products (e.g., paper, furniture), landfill, and charcoal. Wood products can store substantial amounts of carbon and contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse effects. Therefore, accurate accounts for the size of wood products carbon pools for different regions are essential to estimating the land-atmosphere carbon exchange by using the bottom-up approach of carbon stock change. Results To quantify the carbon stored in wood products, we developed a state-of-the-art estimator (Wood Products Carbon Storage Estimator, WPsCS Estimator) that includes the wood products disposal, recycling, and waste wood decomposition processes. The wood products carbon pool in this estimator has three subpools: (1) end-use wood products, (2) landfill, and (3) charcoal carbon. In addition, it has a user-friendly interface, which can be used to easily parameterize and calibrate an estimation. To evaluate its performance, we applied this estimator to account for the carbon stored in wood products made from the timber harvested in Maine, USA, and the carbon storage of wood products consumed in the United States. Conclusion The WPsCS Estimator can efficiently and easily quantify the carbon stored in harvested wood products for a given region over a specific period, which was demonstrated with two illustrative examples. In addition, WPsCS Estimator has a user-friendly interface, and all parameters can be easily modified.
- ItemA preliminary assessment of food policy obstacles in California’s produce recovery networks(Springer Nature, 2023-03-17) Chiarella, Cristina; Lamoureaux, Yulia; Pires, Alda A. F.; Surls, Rachel; Bennaton, Robert; Van Soelen Kim, Julia; Grady, Suzanne; Ramos, Thais M.; Koundinya, Vikram; DiCaprio, ErinCalifornia is a landmark setting for studying produce recovery efforts and policy implications because of its global relevance in agricultural production, its complex network of food recovery organizations, and its environmental and public health regulations. Through a series of focus groups with organizations involved in produce recovery (gleaning organizations) and emergency food operations (food banks, food pantries), this study aimed to deepen our understanding of the current produce recovery system and determine the major challenges and opportunities related to the produce recovery system. Operational and systematic barriers to produce recovery were highlighted by both gleaning and emergency food operations. Operational barriers, such as the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited logistical support were found to be a challenge across groups and were directly tied to inadequate funding for these organizations. Systematic barriers, such as regulations related to food safety or reducing food loss and waste, were also found to impact both gleaning and emergency food organizations, but differences were observed in how each type of regulation impacted each stakeholder group. To support the expansion of food recovery efforts, participants expressed need for better coordination within and across food recovery networks and more positive and transparent engagement from regulators to increase understanding of the specifics of their unique operational constraints. The focus group participants also provided critiques on how emergency food assistance and food recovery are inscribed within the current food system and for longer term goals of reducing food insecurity and food loss and waste a systematic change will be required.
- ItemA preliminary assessment of food policy obstacles in California’s produce recovery networks(Springer Nature, 2023-03-17) Chiarella, Cristina; Lamourearoux, Yulia; Pires, Alda A. F.; Surls, Rachel; Bennaton, Robert; Van Soelen Kim, Julia; Grady, Suzanne; Ramos, Thais M.; Koundinya, Vikram; DiCaprio, ErinCalifornia is a landmark setting for studying produce recovery efforts and policy implications because of its global relevance in agricultural production, its complex network of food recovery organizations, and its environmental and public health regulations. Through a series of focus groups with organizations involved in produce recovery (gleaning organizations) and emergency food operations (food banks, food pantries), this study aimed to deepen our understanding of the current produce recovery system and determine the major challenges and opportunities related to the produce recovery system. Operational and systematic barriers to produce recovery were highlighted by both gleaning and emergency food operations. Operational barriers, such as the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited logistical support were found to be a challenge across groups and were directly tied to inadequate funding for these organizations. Systematic barriers, such as regulations related to food safety or reducing food loss and waste, were also found to impact both gleaning and emergency food organizations, but differences were observed in how each type of regulation impacted each stakeholder group. To support the expansion of food recovery efforts, participants expressed need for better coordination within and across food recovery networks and more positive and transparent engagement from regulators to increase understanding of the specifics of their unique operational constraints. The focus group participants also provided critiques on how emergency food assistance and food recovery are inscribed within the current food system and for longer term goals of reducing food insecurity and food loss and waste a systematic change will be required.
- ItemA reliable and non-destructive method for estimating forage shrub cover and biomass in arid environments using digital vegetation charting technique(Springer Nature, 2018) Louhaichi, Mounir; Hassan, Sawsan; Clifton, Kathryn; Johnson, Douglas E.Despite the importance of fodder shrubs to small ruminant diets and production in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, they are often not considered when quantifying grazing land potential. This oversight is mainly due to the time consuming and costly traditional techniques used to estimate shrub biomass. The shrub fodder component should be measured to avoid underestimation of the carrying capacity of rangelands. In this study, we present a fast, reliable and non-destructive method to estimate canopy vegetation cover to obtain aboveground shrub biomass. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in northwest Syria, where seedlings of seven shrub species were monitored for one year: Atriplex leucoclada (Moq.) Boiss., A. halimus L., A. lentiformis (Torr.) S. Watson, A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt., A. nummularia Lindl., Salsola vermiculata L. and Haloxylon aphyllum (C.A. Meyer) Bunge. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with five replications. We explored the effectiveness of digital vegetation charting technique (DVCT) for estimating shrub canopy cover. Aboveground shrub biomass was clipped to estimate the dry matter (DM) weight per species and to determine its relationship to canopy cover. In this study, an estimate of greenness (percent green vegetation cover) was extracted by way of greenness algorithms. Simple linear regressions between vegetation cover and biomass for 210 plots were performed. The cover of the seven species differed (P < 0.01): A. leucoclada had the highest vegetation cover (56%) and H. aphyllum the lowest (7%). Vegetation cover and DM biomass were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with R-squared ranging from 0.66 (H. aphyllum) to 0.84 (S. vermiculata). Our method provided reasonable estimations of canopy coverage which could predict aboveground phytomass. We conclude that DVCT offers a rapid, reliable and consistent measurement of shrub cover and biomass provided that shrubs have open architecture. This study shows the potential of digital cameras and image processing to determine cover/biomass in a non-destructive, timely and cost efficient way.
- ItemA review of the Indian species of genus Polygraphus Erichson, 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with bio-ecological notes on P. major, a pest of Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jacks (Pinaceae) in Kashmir, India(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2020-09-18) Khanday, Abdul Lateef; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Kerchev, Ivan Andreevich; Singh, Sudhir; Zubair, R.M.The Indian species of the genus Polygraphus Erichson, 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) collected from various localities of the Western Himalayan region and the species available at the National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC), Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) were studied and are reviewed herewith. A key to Indian species of Polygraphus is provided. Detailed bioecological field and laboratory observations of P. major including mating behaviour, gallery pattern, life cycle and seasonal history are reported.
- ItemAbundance and richness of invertebrates in shade‑grown versus sun‑exposed cofee home gardens in Indonesia(Springer Nature, 2022) Campera, Marco; Budiadi, Budiadi; Bušina, Tomáš; Fathoni, Baladzuri Hafzh; Dermody, Janine; Nijman, Vincent; Imron, Muhammad Ali; Nekaris, K. A. I.Complex agroforestry systems are suggested as a possible solution to reduce the effects of deforestation in the tropics while enhancing the livelihoods of local human populations. Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most important commodity crops in the world that can easily be cultivated in complex agroforestry systems. Coffee agroforestry systems usually sustain higher biodiversity levels than sun-exposed fields while keeping similar levels of productivity considering the several benefits of growing coffee under a complex system. We aim to explore the richness and abundance of invertebrates in coffee home gardens in West Java, Indonesia by comparing 14 sun-exposed and 14 shade-grown gardens. We collected data in March/April 2019 via pitfall traps, pan traps, and beating tray in each field. We ran generalised linear models to assess whether the number of species and the number of individuals of insects differed between sun-exposed vs. shade-grown coffee gardens, and tested associations between main taxa. Overall, there was no difference in the richness (sun-exposed: 19.86 ± SE1.19; shade-grown: 19.71 ± SE1.19; Z-value = 0.12, p value = 0.904) and abundance (sun-exposed: 141.93 ± SE 3.18; shade-grown: 139.93 ± SE3.16; Z-value = 0.35, p value = 0.706) of invertebrates in coffee gardens, although taxa specific differences were present. Sun-exposed fields had a higher abundance of invertebrates considered as pests (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae, Ectobiidae; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Lycidae and Tenebrionidae; Diptera: Anisolabididae, Drosophilidae and Sarcophagidae). Camponotus spp. were the most dominant ants in shade-grown gardens while Dolichoderus spp. and Myrmicaria spp. were more abundant in sun-exposed gardens. Despite the fact that sun-exposed coffee fields registered higher abundance of invertebrate pests than shade-grown coffee fields, the richness of invertebrates did not substantially vary between sun-exposed and shade-grown coffee, suggesting that the matrix of gardens offers advanced ecosystem services. It is important to keep the complexity of agroforestry systems that provide key habitats for biodiversity.
- ItemAccumulation of heavy metals in soil and litter of roadside plantations in Western Polissia of Ukraine(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2021-09-19) Maksimtsev, Serhii; Dudarets, Serhii; Yukhnovskyi, VasylThe article presents the results of a study on the influence of roadside forest belts of different species composition on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and litter along roads of international and national importance in the conditions of Western Polissia of Ukraine. Mobile forms of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil and forest litter samples were deter mined in ammonium acetate extract buffer by atomic absorption spectrometry. The analysis of the content of heavy metals, their comparison with the maximum allowable concentrations depending on the composition of plantations and the category of the highway have been done. It is confirmed that roadside forest belts perform important functions in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and forest litter. It is confirmed that roadside forest belts perform important functions in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and forest litter. Among all the pollutants studied, the concentration of cadmium was the lowest and that of zinc the highest (especially in forest litter). Lead and copper in this indicator occupied an intermediate position. Despite the different species composition of plantations, the coefficient of concentration of heavy metals in the soil did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations and was on average in the range of 0.10–0.20 of these indicators. The greatest effect of delaying the migration of heavy metals was observed in forest litter. Therefore, in order to effectively use the biological barrier along the roads, it is necessary to create linear protective belts of deciduous species with Acer platanoides, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus and Tilia cordata, which give a rich annual litterfall.
- ItemAcrocomia aculeata fruits from three regions in Costa Rica: an assessment of biometric parameters, oil content and oil fatty acid composition to evaluate industrial potential(2020) Alfaro-Solís, Jose David; Montoya-Arroyo, Alexander; Jiménez, Víctor M.; Arnáez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Pérez, Jason; Vetter, Walter; Frank, Jan; Lewanowski, IrisDue to increased global demand for vegetable oils, diversification of the supply chain with sustainable sources is necessary. Acrocomia aculeata has recently gained attention as a multi-purpose, sustainable crop for oil production. However, the information necessary for effective selection of promising varieties for agricultural production is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess variability in fruit morphology and oil composition of individual Acrocomia aculeata plants growing wild in different climatic regions of Costa Rica. Fruits at the same ripening stage were collected at three locations, and biometric features, oil content, fatty acid composition of oils from kernels and pulp, as well as fiber composition of husks were determined. Biometric parameters showed high variability among the regions assessed. Moreover, oil content and relative proportions of unsaturated fatty acids were higher at the most tropical location, whereas lauric acid content was lowest under these conditions, indicating a potential environmental effect on oil composition. Pulp oil content correlated positively with annual precipitation and relative humidity, but no clear relation to temperature was observed. The oil chemical composition was similar to that reported for Elaeis guineensis, suggesting that Acrocomia aculeata from Costa Rica may be a suitable alternative for industrial applications currently based on African palm oil. Analysis of husks as a coproduct revealed the possibility of obtaining materials with high lignin and low water and ash contents that could be used as a solid bioenergy source. In conclusion, Acrocomia aculeata oil is a promising alternative for industrial applications currently based on African palm oil and byproducts of its oil production could find additional use as a renewable energy source.
- ItemAct of phosphorus on cell hydraulic state, K+ use efficiency and induction of positive correlations between yield and vegetative traits in chickpea(Taylor & Francis Group - Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-05) Sadji-Ait Kaci, H.; Chaker-Haddadj, A.; Nedir-Kichou, A.; Aid, FSalinity is one of the most severe factors that can affect agricultural productivity worldwide particularly in the arid and semi-arid agro-ecological zones. Chickpea seedlings were grown in the field and subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 50 and 150 mM) and P application (90 kg ha–1). The experimental design was based on a completely randomised design with three replications. Salinity has disturbed the physiological and ionic state of cells by increasing stomatal resistance and significantly decreased growth and yield parameters (−66%). Under salinity, plant growth traits presented a negative correlation with yield components. P application had positive effect on growth parameters and physiological responses of the plants. Our results suggest that the tolerance of chickpea at (NaCl × P) combination is closely associated with ionic homeostasis and physiological activities of the plants. Phosphorus application allowed salinity tolerance by increasing leaf hydraulic statute, improvement of KUE and consequently enhanced grain yield of chickpea. (P × salinity) combination induced a positive correlation between vegetative traits and yield parameters like unstressed treatment. These results suggest that the use of suitable amounts of phosphorus fertiliser (i. e. 90 kg ha–1) to saline soil is a beneficial starter for plant development, yield components and rehabilitation of degraded soils.
- ItemActivity of spore-crystal mixtures of new Bacillus thuringiensis strains against Dendrolimus pini (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(Sciendo (De Gruyter), 2018-07-20) Konecka, Edyta; Kaznowski, Adam; Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Maciąg, MirosławWe estimated the usefulness of spore-crystals preparations of the two B. thuringiensis isolates, MPU B9 and MPU B54, for reducing the number of pests. The potential insecticidal toxicities of B. thuringiensis isolates were assessed by the analysis of the genes coding for crystalline proteins. The activities of spore-crystals preparations were determined against Dendrolimus pini L. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and compared with the toxicity of spores and crystals of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 from commercial biopesticide Foray. Although the analysis of crystalline toxin gene profiles indicated potentially higher activities of MPU B9 and MPU B54 crystals against the pests than that of HD-1, the toxicities of isolate and HD-1 preparations against D. pini caterpillars were similar. The LC50 amounted to 3.42×104 spores and crystals for HD-1, 3.36×104 for MPU B9 and 3.5×104 for MPU B54. Additionally, the toxicity of the MPU B54 preparation was evaluated against Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The LC50 was 4.5×105 spores and crystals of MPU B54, and 2.69×106 spores and crystals of HD-1. The LC50 of the MPU B54 preparation against S. exigua was approximately six-fold higher than that of HD-1. However, due to the very wide fiducidal limits for LC50 values, which for both preparations overlap to a large extent, the toxicity of the preparations should be considered the same. The varied profiles of crystalline toxin genes and important toxicity of spore-crystal mixtures of isolates against S. exigua and D. pini indicate the effectiveness of the mixtures against pests and make the strains an alternative for HD-1 for reducing the number of insects.
- ItemAdvances in European agroforestry: results from the AGFORWARD project(Springer Nature, 2018-08) Burgess, Paul J.; Rosati, AdolfoIn global terms, European farms produce high yields of safe and high quality food but this depends on the use of many off-farm inputs and the associated greenhouse gas emissions, loss of soil nutrients and other negative environmental impacts incur substantial societal costs. Farmers in the European Union receive support through a Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that comprises direct payments to farmers (Pillar I) and payments related to rural development measures (Pillar II). This paper examines the ways in which agroforestry can support European agriculture and rural development drawing on the conclusions of 23 papers presented in this Special Issue of Agroforestry Systems which have been produced during a 4-year research project called AGFORWARD. The project had the goal of promoting agroforestry in Europe and focused on four types of agroforestry: (1) existing systems of high nature and cultural value, and agroforestry for (2) high value tree, (3) arable, and (4) livestock systems. The project has advanced our understanding of the extent of agroforestry in Europe and of farmers’ perceptions of agroforestry, including the reasons for adoption or non-adoption. A participatory approach was used with over 40 stakeholder groups across Europe to test selected agroforestry innovations through field trials and experiments. Innovations included improved grazing management in agroforestry systems of high nature and cultural value and the introduction of nitrogen fixing plants in high value timber plantations and olive groves. Other innovations included shelter benefits for arable crops, and disease-control, nutrient-retention, and food diversification benefits from integrating trees in livestock enterprises. Biophysical and economic models have also been developed to predict the effect of different agroforestry designs on crop and tree production, and on carbon sequestration, nutrient loss and ecosystems services in general. These models help us to quantify the potential environmental benefits of agroforestry, relative to agriculture without trees. In view of the substantial area of European agroforestry and its wider societal and environmental benefits, the final policy papers in this Special Issue argue that agroforestry should play a more significant role in future versions of the CAP than it does at present.
- ItemAfrican Markets and the Utu-Ubuntu Business Model: A persepctive on economic informality in Nairobi.(African Minds, 2019) Kinyanjui, Mary Njeri
- ItemAg-tech, agroecology, and the politics of alternative farming futures: The challenges of bringing together diverse agricultural epistemologies(Springer Nature, 2023-04-21) Sullivan, SummerAgricultural-technology (ag-tech) and agroecology both promise a better farming future. Ag-tech seeks to improve the food system through the development of high-tech tools such as sensors, digital platforms, and robotic harvesters, with many ag-tech start-ups promising to deliver increased agricultural productivity while also enhancing food system sustainability. Agroecology incorporates diverse cropping systems, low external resource inputs, indigenous and farmer knowledge, and is increasingly associated with political calls for a more just food system. Recently, demand has grown for the potentially groundbreaking benefits of their convergence, with the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) attempting just such a union. Building on its combined expertise in engineering and agroecology, as well as a longstanding reputation as a socially progressive institution, university administrators believe that UCSC could produce a unique, socially just form of ag-tech designed for small, low-resource farmers—a rare contribution given ag-tech’s tendency to cater primarily to large-scale agribusiness. This paper examines the complexities of uniting agroecology and ag-tech through interviews with agroecologists, engineers, and social scientists involved in UCSC’s ag-tech initiative. Within the setting of a historically radical yet neoliberalizing university, I find that significant epistemic and structural barriers exist for agroecology and ag-tech to come together on an even playing field. This case study contributes to broader discussions of the future of food and farming by focusing on the contours and challenges of a widely called-for agricultural collaboration, highlighting its difficulty but also areas of possibility in a particularly rich, contested context.
- ItemAgroforestry contributions to smallholder farmer food security in Indonesia(Springer Nature, 2021) Duffy, Colm; Toth, Gregory G.; Hagan, Robert P. O.; McKeown, Peter C.; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Sunderland, Terry C. H.; Spillane, CharlesAgroforestry has potential for strengthening the climate change resilience of smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, the food security challenges faced by smallholders will likely worsen due to climate change impacts. Agroforestry provides and option for strengthening climate change resilience, while contributing to food access, income, health, and environmental stability. To evaluate the evidence for such benefits, this systematic review identifies 22 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2019 which assess agroforestry’s contributions to food security in Indonesia, mostly in Java or Sumatra. Analysis of the studies indicate that traditional and commercial agroforestry contribute to food security in diverse ways: for example, traditional homegardens offer 20% more dietary diversity than commercial counterparts, while commercial homegardens may contribute up to five times more income. Agri-silviculture contributions fall along a timber versus non-timber forest product continuum that displays a similar tradeoff between diversity and income. Those systems with a commercial focus may receive 54% of their income from a single commodity crop such as coffee, while traditional systems allow greater access to plants with medicinal benefits. Nearly all agroforestry systems offered indirect benefits for food security, such as allowing more off-farm work than traditional agriculture and contributing to environmental stability: users of agroforestry were found by one study to collect 83% less fuelwood from natural forests. One study highlighted that agroforestry options have up to 98% greater net present value (for periods over 30 years) compared to slash and burn style agriculture. However, very few studies of Indonesian agroforestry focused explicitly on financial analysis and food security, indicating the need for further research. Given the similar situations faced by many Southeast Asia countries, our findings contribute to emerging trends throughout the region regarding the relationship between agroforestry and food security.
- ItemAgroforestry delivers a win-win solution for ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa. A meta-analysis(Springer Nature, 2019-09-09) Kuyah, Shem; Whitney, Cory W.; Jonsson, Mattias; Sileshi, Gudeta W.; Öborn, Ingrid; Muthuri, Catherine W.; Luedeling, EikeAgricultural landscapes are increasingly being managed with the aim of enhancing the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services and sustainability of production systems. However, agricultural management that maximizes provisioning ecosystem services can often reduce both regulating and maintenance services. We hypothesized that agroforestry reduces trade-offs between provisioning and regulating/maintenance services. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of studies carried out in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on crop yield (as an indicator of provisioning services), soil fertility, erosion control, and water regulation (as indicators of regulating/maintenance services). A total of 1106 observations were extracted from 126 peer-reviewed publications that fulfilled the selection criteria for meta-analysis of studies comparing agroforestry and non-agroforestry practices (hereafter control) in sub-Saharan Africa. Across ecological conditions, agroforestry significantly increased crop yield, total soil nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and available phosphorus compared to the control. Agroforestry practices also reduced runoff and soil loss and improved infiltration rates and soil moisture content. No significant differences were detected between the different ecological conditions, management regimes, and types of woody perennials for any of the ecosystem services. Main trade-offs included low available phosphorus and low soil moisture against higher crop yield. This is the first meta-analysis that shows that, on average, agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa increase crop yield while maintaining delivery of regulating/maintenance ecosystem services. We also demonstrate how woody perennials have been managed in agricultural landscapes to provide multiple ecosystem services without sacrificing crop productivity. This is important in rural livelihoods where the range of ecosystem services conveys benefits in terms of food security and resilience to environmental shocks.